Category Archives: Articles (EN)

This category lists peer-reviewed articles only. Manuscripts, letters or articles that did not go through the classic peer-review process are listed under the category “Blog (EN)”. Please use the suggested reference for each peer-reviewed articles you wish to cite.

EXITING STREET-LEVEL PROSTITUTION IN CANADA: THE TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL IN POPULATION HEALTH

Author: Émilie Lessard

(The article is available in French only)

Abstract

This article examines the influence of social determinants of health on the entry into, the continuance in, and the exit out of street-level prostitution in Canada. The complexity of street-level prostitution in young women creates multiple challenges in implementing a theoretical model to identify issues affecting the health of prostituted women. Street-level prostitution, being closely linked to substance abuse and homelessness, leads to increased health risks associated with drug dependence, sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, mental health problems, increased exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and a high mortality rate. It is imperative to establish a transdisciplinary theoretical model to understand the entry, the continuance and the exit mechanisms of prostitution to better target preventative interventions and better support women wishing to leave street-level prostitution. The transdisciplinary approach also aims to provide courses of intervention for leaving the prostitution system and for guiding future research.

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Access for All to Restricted Access: The Evolution of Assisted Procreation Services in Quebec

Author: Andréanne Chaumont

(The article is available in French only)

Que savez-vous des lois entourant la procréation assistée du Ministère de la Santé du Québec? Débuté par le projet de loi no23 en 2010, le programme de procréation assistée a été sujet de grands débats aux seins du corps médical et médiatique québécois dès sa genèse. Sa couverture médiatique est revenue en force en 2014 avec l’adoption de la Loi favorisant l’accès aux services de médecine de famille et de médecine spécialisée (loi no20) dans le cadre de la réforme du système de santé québécois (Gouvernement du Québec, 2015). Le texte ici-bas offre un survol de la couverture médiatique de l’évolution aux services de procréation assistée au Québec (SPA) jusqu’à aujourd’hui.

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The Global Burden of Surgical Disease: An Analysis of Inaccessible Surgical Care in Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Chau Huynh, Minh NQ Huynh

Abstract

Worldwide, 4.8 billion people do not have access to safe, adequate surgical care and anaesthetic management. Surgical care has been deemed “the neglected child of global health,” a startling reminder of the disparities in health services. The provision of surgical interventions can avert 11% of the global burden of disease and 1.5 million deaths each year. Many obstacles exist for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to progress towards accessible surgical care. The first challenge is delivering cost-effective surgical care despite financial constraints and political turmoil. Foreign aid was established to alleviate the financial burden and its contributions have been pivotal. However, based on the political climate in certain countries, funds are siphoned to government sectors other than health care. Moreover, the lack of infrastructure, equipment, and personnel in LMIC compound the issue. The other challenge is determining if surgery is as feasible and effective as non-surgical health interventions. Surgical care is crucial and this paper aims to assess the challenges that limit its stature in global health discussions. The paper will address the influence of financing, infrastructure, workforce, service delivery, and information management on surgical care, and the current resolutions, such as humanitarian aid missions.

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An overview of scientific-based knowledge on sedentary behaviour among the pediatric population – A conceptual model development

Author: Salomé Aubert

Abstract

Sedentary behaviour has been identified as a specifically deleterious personal practice on multiple levels of health of individuals at all ages, including the pediatric population (i.e., 0 to 18 years of age). The aims of this paper are to (I) summarize the literature concerning the definition, the characteristics, the context, the determinants and the consequences of sedentary behaviour among children and youth; (II) propose a conceptual model that summarizes these findings; and finally (III) highlight research gaps in the literature. Sedentary behaviours are common and complex behaviours that can potentially affect the health of children and youth on the physiological and psychological levels. Those deleterious effects on health can vary depending on how they are accumulated throughout the day, for example with or without interruption, or in which context. While childhood engagement in sedentary behaviours is too high in the majority of countries where it has been assessed, developing research and policies that target the reduction of sedentary behaviours among children and youth must be ranked as a top priority for all public health organizations worldwide. Although further research is needed concerning the identification of the specific determinants and consequences of different types and patterns of sedentary behaviours in various contexts, the Conceptual Model for the Study and Understanding of Children and Youth’s Sedentary Behaviour, which I have proposed in this paper, gives an overview of the topic and supports the development of policy and further research.

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Reducing interprofessional conflicts in order to facilitate better rural care: A report from a 2016 Rural Surgical Network Invitational Meeting

Author: Hayley Pelletier

Abstract

An invitational meeting organized by the Centre for Rural Health Research convened to facilitate respectful dialogue with general surgeons in British Columbia to clearly understand concerns and address questions around rural family physicians with enhanced surgical skills (FPESS). In particular, the meeting focused on interprofessional challenges that hinder the adoption of a network model between general surgeons and FPESS. This report summarizes the findings (n=5) and recommendations (n=8) from the meeting. The meeting underscored the need for more thoughtful discussions to develop interprofessional trust and support between general surgeons and FPESS through an integrated health care system and proper networks.

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An Interdisciplinary Population Health Approach to the Radon Health Risk Management in Canada

Authors: Selim M. Khan, James Gomes

Abstract

Radon is a known carcinogen found in indoor air that exists at higher than the federal reference level (200 Bq/m3) in about 10% of Canadian homes. Every year, over 3,000 people die from radon-induced lung cancer, which accounts for 16% of annual lung cancer deaths in Canada. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer deaths among non-smokers and is second among smokers. Children, women, and smokers from lower income groups are disproportionately affected. Although the Federal Government has reset the guideline (from the previous 600 Bq/m3 down to 200 Bq/m3) and provincial governments revised the building codes to limit exposure, there remain controversies with the latest scientific development in adopting strategies of radon management in Canada.

This review applies an Integrated Population Health Framework to look at the relationships and interactions between population health determinants such as biology and genetics, environment and occupation, and social and economic factors, that influence the health risk of radon. The evidence gathered supports policy analysis with the application of ethical and risk management principles that lead to the identification of efficient and affordable broad-based and population-level preventive strategies. The final inferences enhance the framework by adding critical intervention modalities to Health Canada’s National Radon Program.

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Conflict and disease: A complex relationship

Author: Robert A. Frank 

Societies will always be subjected to situations that test their tolerance thresholds. When a stressor exceeds a society’s capacity to cope, “failure” of the system is often manifested as social unrest, falling along a spectrum of intensity ranging from civil wars and revolutions to riots, strikes, and protests (Braha, 2012). The conflict leading to social unrest is most often initiated by groups on the disadvantaged end of systemic inequalities, as a desperate effort at effecting change (Haas, 1986). Although social unrest is sometimes a necessary vehicle for cultural revolution, the resultant disruption of society invariably creates a volatile environment that is vulnerable to adverse health outcomes (Jovanović, Renn, & Schröter, 2012).

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Planning and delivery of health services – an article review on urban aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with healthcare utilization

Author: Ankit Dhawan

Abstract

An article from Social Science and Medicine, written by Snyder and Wilson (2012), examined the use of healthcare services by urban Aboriginal populations in Canada. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Use (BMHSU), predisposing, enabling, and need factors were organized and used for data analysis. Specifically, a comparison was made between conventional (physicians and nurses) and traditional (traditional healers) health service utilization in Toronto and Winnipeg. In addition to the geographical and educational factors, the results of the research recognized mobility as a significant predisposing complement to healthcare utilization.

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An Overview of the Malaria Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Sandra M. Konji

Abstract

Malaria is a parasitic disease that is transmitted by mosquitos during their blood meal. The risk of contracting malaria is highest for people in tropical countries, due to the ever-present humid weather that allows yearly infections. Consequently, sub-Saharan Africa has a disproportionately higher rate of death among women and children with malaria. One of the major barriers identified in the efficacy of malaria treatment and prevention is the lack of health education and literacy. The lack of health education has decreased the efficacy of antimalarial drugs, such as Artemether Lumefantrine, due to the distribution and administration of the drug by untrained persons. The lack of incidence and prevalence data makes it difficult to ensure adequate supply of the drug in endemic countries. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge of malaria pathogenesis and transmission has prevented many from promptly seeking treatment and practicing preventative care methods. Recently, the implementation of health education programs by international organizations has allowed local and travelling healthcare practitioners to be educated on the disease and methods of antimalarial drug administration.

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The Development of Scoring Criteria for a New Picture Naming Task

Authors: Ferzin MahavaChristine SheppardLaura MonettaVanessa Taler

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop a scoring system for a novel naming task suitable for assessing naming performance in younger (18-30 years) and older (65+ years) adults in monolingual English, monolingual French, and English-French bilingual groups. This novel naming task will serve as an important health service to help diagnose and assess cognitively impaired older individuals, while also serving as an educational tool for healthcare providers.

Materials and Methods: The Naming Task consists of 120 images organized in the same randomized order, and are shown on a white background displayed on a computer screen using PowerPoint. Participants are instructed to name the image displayed. Monolinguals completed the test in their native language and bilinguals completed the test in English only, French only, and a bilingual administration. Scoring criteria was established based on the responses from testing.

Results: Strict and lenient scoring criteria developed for the Naming Task are presented. Eight items were removed from the original Naming Task due to quality and/or clarity, inability to name the image, or too many alternate responses. Performance in mono-lingual English and French was similar in younger and older adults for strict and lenient scoring. Bilinguals performed better with bilingual administration and worse with French administration, where scores were the lowest of all age and language groups.

Conclusion: The Naming Task appears to be suitable for monolingual French and English individuals. Results suggest that a bilingual administration should be used when testing English-French bilinguals.

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