Category Archives: IJHS 3 (2)

IJHS volume 3, issue 2

“FYI: Can Viagra Make You A Better Athlete?” Media Review

Author: James TAYLOR

Article Source:

Abstract

Introduction: Athletes have started taking Viagra to gain a competitive edge. Viagra’s use might be expanding into the athletic world for its alleged boost to one’s physical capability. This paper will discuss Viagra’s impact on society, its users, athletic organisations, and whether its purported performance enhancement uses are valid and safe.

Pharmacology: Viagra works by relaxing smooth muscle cells through the inhibition of PDE5, thus, increasing the bioavailability of cGMP.

Results: Subjects had a higher VO2 max and recovered faster from pulmonary hypertension when given Viagra. Other results are mixed and not well established.

Barriers: Allowing Viagra into the athletic community may cause concern from sports organisations but will conversely and unequally burden those who require Viagra for healthy sexual function.

Conclusion: These findings do not directly correlate to an improvement in athletic performance. Furthermore, taking Viagra may pose as a risk to one’s health. Viagra should only be taken upon consultation with a health care professional.

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The Demand for Alternative Forms of Financing Universal Health Care in Canada: A Literature Review

Authors: Samantha LAXTON & Sanni YAYA

Abstract

The discourse surrounding the unsustainability of financing universal health care in Canada has led many stakeholders to evaluate the current system in order to consider alternative forms of funding. Several health care financing models have been suggested and include Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs), increased taxation and targeting policy to control specific cost drivers such as price inflation of physician and hospital services. This paper targets health care professionals, researchers and policy makers and calls for more awareness in evaluating public health reform initiatives for alternative measures of financing Universal Health Care. Public reform must be critically considered in order to improve the cost and delivery of health care services since private methods ultimately impede on individual and population determinants of health. Discussed here are alternative financing strategies with an evaluation of benefits, limitations, and future recommendations for Canada’s health care system.

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Nurse Navigation and the Transition to Cancer Survivorship: A Review of Determinants Essential to Program Success

Author: Amanda GIUNTI

Abstract

Nurse navigation programs are becoming prominent in the field of cancer care.  As a newly emerging field, nurse navigation employs nurses and other health care professionals who assist patients in overcoming barriers throughout the cancer continuum. The concept of nurse navigation is being extended to focus on survivorship, which is described as the period following active cancer treatment where patients often encounter barriers affecting their care and quality of life. By utilizing specific skills and modalities, including education, communication, and coordination, survivorship navigators are able to assist in reducing disparities such as knowledge and communication inadequacies, thus, facilitating optimal access to survivorship care. Access to health services is an important determinant of health in Canada. Survivorship navigation programs incorporate health services, providing a method in which cancer patients can overcome challenges and improve their health outcomes. This review will discuss the origins of nurse navigation, highlight navigator skills and modalities, which are essential to program success, and finally discuss the implications of a survivorship navigation program.

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Queers in the Classroom: The Role of Sexual Identity in the Academic Experiences of Gay Male Graduate Students

Author: John Ecker

Abstract

The experiences of three self-identified gay male graduate students were explored to understand the role that sexual orientation played within their academic lives. Through semi-structured interviews, the participants were able to share their experiences of being a gay male graduate student and the effects on their educational experience. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Three main themes emerged: a) choosing to disclose sexual identity within the academic setting; b) challenges encountered when interacting with classmates; and c) benefits of being a gay male graduate student. Findings suggest that managing and expressing one’s sexual identity are important processes that interact with several aspects of the life of gay male graduate students.

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The Ethics of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis in Practice: An Analysis of the Feasibility and Ethical Considerations of Applying and Regulating Genetic Enhancement

Author: Helena BLEEKER

Abstract

Pre-Implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has many therapeutic and enhancement applications. In a previous work, I presented arguments in favour of all types of PGD, whether for medical therapies or human enhancement. These arguments were based on the absence of moral distinctions between genetic therapy and genetic enhancement.

The implication of these arguments is that, if one cannot distinguish between therapy and enhancement on moral grounds, then all PGD applications must be either moral or immoral. Although logically speaking this argument may be true, in practice I believe that it is possible and necessary to draw a line between what is morally permissible and what is not with respect to applications of PGD for genetic enhancement.

In order to draw this line, I move away from analyzing the moral substance of PGD as a technology and focus instead on the moral agents that will employ PGD. As humans, I believe we are both morally accountable and morally unreliable as agents for the use of PGD, and this feature forms the basis of the delineation of acceptable PGD practices.

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Sub-Saharan Women Affected by HIV/AIDS: The Perfect Storm of Risk Factors

Authors: Isabel ARROYO & Dr. Sanni YAYA

Abstract

This paper examines the prevalence and incidence rates of HIV/AIDS in women living in sub-Saharan Africa. The risk factors presented in the literature that are hypothesized to be responsible for the increasing rates of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African women are identified. Risk factors discussed include biological factors, parasites, malnutrition, lower socioeconomic status, intimate partner violence, war, gender inequality and lack of education. These risk factors relate to multiple determinants of health: income and social status, education and literacy, employment, physical environment, gender and culture. The authors present their perspectives on mediating this epidemic, which involves reducing the ramifications of poverty on sub-Saharan women. Continue reading Sub-Saharan Women Affected by HIV/AIDS: The Perfect Storm of Risk Factors