Authors: Chau Huynh, Minh NQ Huynh
Worldwide, 4.8 billion people do not have access to safe, adequate surgical care and anaesthetic management. Surgical care has been deemed “the neglected child of global health,” a startling reminder of the disparities in health services. The provision of surgical interventions can avert 11% of the global burden of disease and 1.5 million deaths each year. Many obstacles exist for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to progress towards accessible surgical care. The first challenge is delivering cost-effective surgical care despite financial constraints and political turmoil. Foreign aid was established to alleviate the financial burden and its contributions have been pivotal. However, based on the political climate in certain countries, funds are siphoned to government sectors other than health care. Moreover, the lack of infrastructure, equipment, and personnel in LMIC compound the issue. The other challenge is determining if surgery is as feasible and effective as non-surgical health interventions. Surgical care is crucial and this paper aims to assess the challenges that limit its stature in global health discussions. The paper will address the influence of financing, infrastructure, workforce, service delivery, and information management on surgical care, and the current resolutions, such as humanitarian aid missions.
Continue reading The Global Burden of Surgical Disease: An Analysis of Inaccessible Surgical Care in Low and Middle Income Countries
Author: Salomé Aubert
Sedentary behaviour has been identified as a specifically deleterious personal practice on multiple levels of health of individuals at all ages, including the pediatric population (i.e., 0 to 18 years of age). The aims of this paper are to (I) summarize the literature concerning the definition, the characteristics, the context, the determinants and the consequences of sedentary behaviour among children and youth; (II) propose a conceptual model that summarizes these findings; and finally (III) highlight research gaps in the literature. Sedentary behaviours are common and complex behaviours that can potentially affect the health of children and youth on the physiological and psychological levels. Those deleterious effects on health can vary depending on how they are accumulated throughout the day, for example with or without interruption, or in which context. While childhood engagement in sedentary behaviours is too high in the majority of countries where it has been assessed, developing research and policies that target the reduction of sedentary behaviours among children and youth must be ranked as a top priority for all public health organizations worldwide. Although further research is needed concerning the identification of the specific determinants and consequences of different types and patterns of sedentary behaviours in various contexts, the Conceptual Model for the Study and Understanding of Children and Youth’s Sedentary Behaviour, which I have proposed in this paper, gives an overview of the topic and supports the development of policy and further research.
Continue reading An overview of scientific-based knowledge on sedentary behaviour among the pediatric population – A conceptual model development
Author: Hayley Pelletier
An invitational meeting organized by the Centre for Rural Health Research convened to facilitate respectful dialogue with general surgeons in British Columbia to clearly understand concerns and address questions around rural family physicians with enhanced surgical skills (FPESS). In particular, the meeting focused on interprofessional challenges that hinder the adoption of a network model between general surgeons and FPESS. This report summarizes the findings (n=5) and recommendations (n=8) from the meeting. The meeting underscored the need for more thoughtful discussions to develop interprofessional trust and support between general surgeons and FPESS through an integrated health care system and proper networks.
Continue reading Reducing interprofessional conflicts in order to facilitate better rural care: A report from a 2016 Rural Surgical Network Invitational Meeting
Authors: Selim M. Khan, James Gomes
Radon is a known carcinogen found in indoor air that exists at higher than the federal reference level (200 Bq/m3) in about 10% of Canadian homes. Every year, over 3,000 people die from radon-induced lung cancer, which accounts for 16% of annual lung cancer deaths in Canada. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer deaths among non-smokers and is second among smokers. Children, women, and smokers from lower income groups are disproportionately affected. Although the Federal Government has reset the guideline (from the previous 600 Bq/m3 down to 200 Bq/m3) and provincial governments revised the building codes to limit exposure, there remain controversies with the latest scientific development in adopting strategies of radon management in Canada.
This review applies an Integrated Population Health Framework to look at the relationships and interactions between population health determinants such as biology and genetics, environment and occupation, and social and economic factors, that influence the health risk of radon. The evidence gathered supports policy analysis with the application of ethical and risk management principles that lead to the identification of efficient and affordable broad-based and population-level preventive strategies. The final inferences enhance the framework by adding critical intervention modalities to Health Canada’s National Radon Program.
Continue reading An Interdisciplinary Population Health Approach to the Radon Health Risk Management in Canada
Author: Robert A. Frank
Societies will always be subjected to situations that test their tolerance thresholds. When a stressor exceeds a society’s capacity to cope, “failure” of the system is often manifested as social unrest, falling along a spectrum of intensity ranging from civil wars and revolutions to riots, strikes, and protests (Braha, 2012). The conflict leading to social unrest is most often initiated by groups on the disadvantaged end of systemic inequalities, as a desperate effort at effecting change (Haas, 1986). Although social unrest is sometimes a necessary vehicle for cultural revolution, the resultant disruption of society invariably creates a volatile environment that is vulnerable to adverse health outcomes (Jovanović, Renn, & Schröter, 2012).
Continue reading Conflict and disease: A complex relationship