Tag Archives: Gender

Sexual and Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings

As of today, there are 68.5 million people who have had to flee their homes, nearly 25.4 million of them being classified as refugees (UNHCR, 2018). We have reached the highest level of displacement in recorded history (UNHCR, 2018). There is a need to further discuss the unique and specific needs of displaced people and the complications surrounding effective services.

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Transmission of Human Papillomavirus Without Sexual Contact

Authors: Naweed Ahmed, Wakqas Kayani, Sahab Jamshidi, Suneil Bapat, Ahmed ImamovicPanteha Tavassol


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. There are four common HPV strains: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Strains 6 and 11 cause genital warts, while strains 16 and 18 are asymptomatic in males and may progress to cervical cancer in females. Although uncommon, a small percentage of males and females have been diagnosed with HPV without previous sexual contact. In this case report, we discuss a case conducted on a 15-year-old South Asian male who contracted an unknown low-risk strain of HPV with no history of sexual contact. HPV is highly infectious, however in the majority of cases the immune system is able to clear the infection, preventing the appearance of genital warts. In cases such as these, it is important to help control the spread of viral infections. Several determinants of health are involved in and affect the trans-mission of HPV, including income and social status, social support networks, education and literacy, culture, social and physical environments, and health services. To aid in the prevention of HPV, sexual education should be taught at early ages within schools and the Gardasil® vaccine should be administered to both females and males at an early age to reduce the burden of disease and the incidence of HPV.

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Gender refers to the socially constructed roles and attributes assigned to men, women and other gender groups that extend beyond the biologically defined categories of sex. It is a multifaceted determinant of health, which encompasses the social roles, personality traits, values, attitudes, behaviours, relative power and influence ascribed to these groups in a given society. Unlike sex characteristics, aspects of gender vary greatly depending on the place, culture, and stage in life.

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Sub-Saharan Women Affected by HIV/AIDS: The Perfect Storm of Risk Factors

Authors: Isabel ARROYO & Dr. Sanni YAYA


This paper examines the prevalence and incidence rates of HIV/AIDS in women living in sub-Saharan Africa. The risk factors presented in the literature that are hypothesized to be responsible for the increasing rates of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African women are identified. Risk factors discussed include biological factors, parasites, malnutrition, lower socioeconomic status, intimate partner violence, war, gender inequality and lack of education. These risk factors relate to multiple determinants of health: income and social status, education and literacy, employment, physical environment, gender and culture. The authors present their perspectives on mediating this epidemic, which involves reducing the ramifications of poverty on sub-Saharan women. Continue reading Sub-Saharan Women Affected by HIV/AIDS: The Perfect Storm of Risk Factors

A critique of Gender Identity Disorder and its application



For some, Gender Identity Disorder (GID) becomes the only way to achieve sex reassignment surgery (SRS). It will be shown that GID acts as a problematic regulatory mechanism based on its application.

It will be argued that GID normalizes a dichotomous view of gender. In this way, GID’s implicit applications allow the mental health professional to assert their views of what proper gendered behavior is, further normalizing a binary view of gender.

Insurance companies require a GID diagnosis in order to provide economic assistance to those wishing to undergo sex reassignment surgery. Those who cannot afford to transition must fall under GID’s gaze in order to achieve SRS. This will be shown to be unacceptable and a way in which GID operates as a regulatory mechanism.

Appealing to a GID diagnosis can further stigmatize the individual who wishes to transition due to the necessitation of distress as an explicit mechanism of diagnosis. Having to fall under GID may internalize the negative aspects of the diagnosis.

A criticism of GID as a form of psychopathology will be given and also be linked to the idea of GID as a regulatory apparatus. It will be shown that there should be no link between ethical discomfort and GID-free sex reassignment surgery. Also, it will be shown that psychopathology has normalizing capabilities that further entrench gender binaries.

It is important to consider the removal of GID from the DSM, but, as a condition, still offer funding for sex reassignment surgery without having to appeal to a mental health professional’s assessment.

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