Tag Archives: Income and Social Status


Author: Annick Vallières

(The article is available in French only)


Intersectionality is a concept that describes the various ways multiple forms of oppression or privilege are interconnected. Today, the concept also applies to the interconnection of different determinants of health in the study of health inequalities. This article describes the concept of intersectionality and how it relates to determinants of health by stating the factors that drive researchers to focus on intersectionality within the scope of determinants of health. It also explains how treating interconnected inequalities as multiple determinants affects people’s health, and how intersectionality can fill the gaps in knowledge surrounding the health of marginalized groups and the general population. The example of breastfeeding is used to show how the intersectional analysis framework could benefit the advancement of knowledge on a specific topic. In conclusion, the article addresses the methodological challenges that are left to overcome to advance the knowledge in this area.


Social Class as a Predictor of Health: Money Isn’t Everything

Socioeconomic status (SES) is the social and economic position of an individual in a given society. Indicators of socioeconomic status such as occupation, education, and income are what influence health outcomes. Higher SES is associated with a lower risk of mortality and morbidity whereas an inverse relationship is seen with low SES (Adler & Newman, 2002; American Psychological Association, 2015). Health problems experienced in low SES groups include low birthweight, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, arthritis, diabetes and cancer. In Canada, only 43% of people with the lowest incomes reported having very good or excellent health compared with 73% of people with the highest incomes (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2013). The former group also had a greater risk of early death and more illnesses. Given these observations, the relationship between SES and health can be strongly attributed to income; however, could the aforementioned relationship be due to other social and psychological factors independent of wealth?

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The impact of income level and social status on health and quality of life

In 1978, researchers Wilkins and Adams demonstrated that the richest Canadians received 12 additional years of good health relative to poor Canadians. Nearly four decades have passed and the problem persists. The link between social status and health is referred to as “social health inequality” (Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, 2014). This is an unfair and avoidable situation where socioeconomic conditions determine an individual’s risk of getting sick, and access measures  to prevent or cure the disease (WHO, 2008).

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Poverty and early childhood development in Canada

Poverty in Canada

Compared to other affluent countries, Canada has low rates of public spending and high child poverty rates, and has received several UN reprimands for failing to improve child and family poverty1,2. Though estimates vary, poverty affects approximately three million Canadians, 20% (or 600,000) of whom are children3. It is believed that around 15% of children, almost one in six, live below poverty thresholds4,5. Meanwhile, child poverty rates in Ontario lie around 14%, suggesting that almost 19,000 children are born into low-income families every year6,7. Perhaps most disappointingly, this is not a new, or unrecognized problem. In 1989, recognizing the high child poverty rates in Canada, the Canadian House of Commons voted unanimously to eliminate child poverty by 20008; this was followed shortly after by Canada’s ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991. However, almost 25 years after this original motion was passed, some argue that the situation has deteriorated rather than improved9.

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